Gold is deposited on atomically clean, inwards polarized, ferroelectric lead zirco-titanate deposited by pulsed laser deposition on strontium titanate (001) single crystal, then carbon monoxide adsorption and desorption experiments are investigated by in situ fast photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Atomic force microscopy and high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy are consistent with the formation of 50?100 nm nanoparticles, and their Au 4f core levels point to a negative charge state of gold. As compared with a similar experiment performed on ferroelectric lead zirco-titanate with similar polarization state and without gold, the saturation coverage after exposure to carbon monoxide increases by about 68 %, and also most of the additional carbon is found in oxidized state. Desorption experiments with in situ follow-up by photoelectron spectroscopy are performed as function of temperature, and the neutral carbon intensity decreases when the ferroelectric polarization decreases, while the components corresponding to oxidized carbon remain unchanged. It looks that neutral carbon adsorption is strictly related to the polarization of the ferroelectric film, while carbon still found in molecular form is related to its carbonyl bonding on metal nanoparticles, independent of the polarization state of the substrate. Desorbed carbon at higher temperature uptakes oxygen from the substrate.
2. Spirobifluorene-based Porous Organic Polymers as Efficient Porous Supports for Pd and Pt for Selective Hydrogenation
Trandafir, MM; Pop, L; Hadade, ND; Hristea, I; Teodorescu, CM; Krumeich, F; van Bokhoven, JA; Grosu, I; Parvulescu, VI
Spirobifluorene-based porous organic polymers (POP) were synthesized following two different protocols; the acetylenic coupling reaction conditions and the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. These were utilized as support for the hydrogenation of a series of species containing unsaturated C=C and C=O bonds (4-nitrostyrene, 4-bromobenzophenone, acetophenone, 7-nitro-1-tetralone and 1,2-naphtoquinone confirmed their efficiency). POP1 prepared via a copper-catalysis protocol was completely inactive, while POP2-4 containing residual Pd exhibited different activities in accordance to the accessibility of the substrates to the metal. Further deposition of 0.5wt% Pd led to active and stable catalysts. They were easily separated by filtration, and after re-dispersion, afforded the same performances for ten successive cycles. This study also evidenced the specific role of the support in these reactions by comparing the behavior of Pd/POP with that of a Pd/C catalyst with the same loading of palladium. The deposition of Pt on these supports led to sub-nanometric particles and, in accordance, to a different catalytic behavior reflected merely by differences in the selectivity.