Ultra High Vacuum System for XPS/UPS/AES (Specs)


Ultra High Vacuum System for XPS/UPS/AES (Specs)
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) – a spectroscopic technique based on photoelectric effect that measures the elemental composition, valence state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) – an analytical technique based on Auger effect used for chemical characterization of surfaces and bulk materials
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) – a characterization technique based on quantum tunneling effect used for surface imaging at atomic resolution
Elements and the quantity of those elements that are present within ~10 nm from the sample surface.
  • Contamination from the surface or the bulk of the sample
  • Empirical formula of materials
  • Chemical state identification of elements (valence state, oxidation state)
  • Binding energy (BE) of electronic states
  • Thickness of thin layers (1–8 nm) of different materials on the surface
  • Density of electronic states
  • Depth compositional profile
  • Surfaces morphology at the atomic level
  • Detects all chemical elements except hydrogen and helium
  • Detection limits for most of the elements are in the parts per thousand range (1-3 ‰)
  • High surface sensitivity since the electrons come from the first 10-20 layers of the surface
  • High surface imaging resolution in STM technique: 0.2 Å
  • Nondestructive analysis of materials: metals, alloys, ceramics and most glasses are not
  • measurably degraded by X-rays. Polymers, catalysts, certain highly oxygenated
  • compounds, various inorganic compounds and fine organics are low degraded by either
  • monochromatic or non-monochromatic X-ray sources.
  • Materials and surfaces science
  • Microelectronics
  • Etching and corrosion processes (oxidation states of elements, chemical changes in surface
  • composition, depth profiling)
  • Heterogeneous catalysis (chemical species identification, chemical states of active species,
  • chemical changes during reaction)
  • Ascertainment of: the elemental composition, the chemical and electronic state of the
  • elements existing on surface, the atomic composition on surface
  • Control of the concentration of heavy metals or of the other pollutants in sediments and soil

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